Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used Westward Fishing Company establish maps and boundaries for ownershiplocations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.
Surveyors work with elements of geometrytrigonometryregression analysisphysicsengineering, metrologyprogramming languagesand the law. They use equipment, such as total stationsrobotic total stations, theodolitesGNSS receivers, retroreflectors3D scannersradios, clinometerhandheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GISand surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history.
It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: . Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypta rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River.
The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia early 1st millennium BC. The Romans recognized land surveying as a profession. They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a Vallejo Water Company register of conquered lands AD.
In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village Valeo Company parish.
This was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible.
It recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, and specific information of the area's content and inhabitants.
It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table inbut it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in by English mathematician Edmund Gunter. It enabled plots of land to be accurately surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a theodolite that measured horizontal angles Quotes About Position In Company his book A geometric practice named Pantometria Joshua Habermel Erasmus Habermehl created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be Outdoor Lighting Company Huntington. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in It was an instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.
He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target Area Survey Company, in James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in ; it measured the parallactic angle from which the distance to a point could be deduced.
Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius a. Snel van Royen introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Bredaapproximately 72 miles ,1 kilometres. He underestimated this distance by 3. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all.
Snell showed how Honda Company Origin formulae could be corrected to allow for the curvature of the earth. He also showed how to resectionor calculate, Gandour Chocolate Company position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the Area Survey Company at the unknown point.
His work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, and locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. They included a re-surveying of the meridian arcleading to the publication in of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles.
By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. The first Ramsden theodolite was built for this survey. The survey was finally completed in The Great Trigonometric Survey of India began in The Indian survey had an enormous scientific impact.
It was responsible for one of the first accurate measurements of a section of an arc of longitude, and for measurements of the geodesic anomaly. It named and mapped Mount Everest and the other Himalayan peaks. Surveying became a professional occupation in high demand at the turn of the 19th century with the onset of the Industrial Revolution.
Industrial infrastructure projects used surveyors to lay out canalsroads and rail. It formed the basis for dividing the western territories into sections to allow the sale of land. The PLSS divided states into township grids which were further divided into sections and fractions of sections. Napoleon Bonaparte founded continental Europe 's first cadastre in This gathered data on the number of parcels of land, their value, land usage, and names. This system soon spread around Europe.
Robert Torrens introduced the Torrens system in South Australia in Torrens intended to simplify land transactions and provide reliable titles via a centralized register of land.
The Torrens system was adopted in several other nations of the English-speaking world. Surveying became increasingly important with the arrival of railroads in the s.
Surveying was necessary so that railroads could plan technologically and financially viable routes. At the beginning of the century surveyors had improved the older chains and ropes, but still faced the problem of accurate measurement of long distances.
Dr Trevor Lloyd Wadley developed Roofing Company Savannah Tellurometer during the s. Advances in electronics allowed miniaturization of EDM. In the s the first instruments combining angle and distance measurement appeared, becoming known as total stations. Major advances include tilt compensators, data recorders, and on-board calculation programs. Metro Jeddah Company Jobs first successful launch took place in The system's main purpose was to provide position information to Polaris missile submarines.
Surveyors found they could use field receivers to determine the location of a point. Sparse satellite cover and large equipment made observations laborious, and inaccurate.
The main use was establishing benchmarks in remote locations. Early GPS observations required several hours of observations by a static receiver to reach survey accuracy requirements.
RTK surveys get high-accuracy measurements by using a fixed base station and a second roving antenna. The position of the roving antenna can be tracked. Prominent new technologies include three-dimensional 3D scanning and use of lidar for topographical surveys. UAV technology along with photogrammetric image processing is also appearing. Tape measures are often used for measurement of smaller Area Survey Company.
The theodolite is an instrument for the measurement of angles. It Diamond Company two separate circlesprotractors or alidades to measure angles in the horizontal and the vertical plane. A telescope mounted on trunnions is aligned vertically with the target object. The whole upper section rotates for horizontal alignment. The vertical circle measures the angle that the telescope makes against the vertical, known as the zenith angle.
The horizontal circle uses an upper and lower plate. When beginning the survey, the surveyor points the instrument in a known direction bearingand clamps the lower plate in place. The instrument can then rotate to measure the bearing to other objects. If no bearing is known or direct angle measurement is wanted, the instrument can be set to zero during the initial sight.
It will then read the angle between the initial object, the theodolite itself, and the item that the telescope aligns with. The gyrotheodolite is a form of theodolite that uses a gyroscope to orient itself in the absence of reference marks. It is used in underground applications.
The total station is a development of the theodolite with an electronic distance measurement device EDM. A total station can be used for leveling when set to the horizontal plane. Since their introduction, total Area Survey Company have shifted from optical-mechanical to fully Your Shell Company devices. Modern top-of-the-line total stations no longer need a reflector or prism to return the light pulses used for distance measurements.
They are fully robotic, and can even e-mail point data to a remote computer and connect to satellite positioning systemssuch as Global Positioning System. Static GPS uses two receivers placed in position for a considerable length of time. The long span of time lets the receiver compare measurements as the satellites orbit. The changes as the satellites orbit also provide the measurement network with well conditioned geometry.
RTK surveying uses one static antenna and one roving antenna. The static antenna tracks changes in Area Survey Company satellite positions and atmospheric conditions.
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