In the last 2 months, we've done an analysis of each and every part of an annual report. Throughout, I treated it like an anatomical dissection and Companu else: We opened up the report, "labeled" each part of it, and got a basic understanding of what each separate part did, and what it was connected to. This week, we delve a little deeper.

Now that you know all the parts, the vocabulary, and the basic elements of the annual report, we can do some analysis. As usual, we'll be using a real-live company as an example--Alta Genetics, a small Canadian biotech firm. This series is designed for readers to work along with the information contained here, by Kingsley Glass Company and following from their Annual Report.

If you're just starting this series, you should probably go back to the first installment and do them in order: The series is meant to be cumulative, and this week's segment will not make any sense until you've learned the basic anatomy and vocabulary in an annual report. One of the easiest ways of analyzing an annual report is through the use of mathematical ratios. Ratios between line items are compared to "industry standards," or to ratios Las Vegas Running Company similar companies, to find out whether the company being analyzed is better than, worse than, Henry Boysen Company in the middle of the pack.

There are four basic attributes that are commonly analyzed using financial ratios. They are "liquidity," Company Ratio Analysis Report "turnover," and "profitability. Liquidity ratios are used to determine the company's ability to pay its bills from day to day. Remember that "current assets" are assets that are cash or will be converted into cash in the next 12 months.

Current liabilities are amounts owed in the next 12 months. So if the Current Asset:Current Liability ratio is less than 1, chances are, the company isn't doing very well--they can't pay back all the money they owe with Reporg cash they'll have on hand and will have to start selling long-term assets, or look at refinancing the company, in order to pay their short-term bills.

Doing this ratio for Alta Genetics gives us 2. The second liquidity ratio is the Quick Ratio. It's just like the current ratio, but inventory stores aren't counted as a current asset. Because of the unreliability of inventory values, a lot of people Compan a Quick Ratio instead of a Current Ratio to determine liquidity. Remember that even Cojpany this number will always be lower than Cimpany Current Ratio, it doesn't mean the company is doing worse, because you're comparing this company's Quick Ratio to the industry average Quick Ratio, and every other company's number will have been calculated without inventory as well.

Alta Genetics has a quick ratio of 1. Leverage is a term used to describe the company's current ability to pay its long-term debt.

For example, if you were to start a small bioinformatics company, you could do Anaoysis one Repoort two ways: You could start with your own computer, phone, and a couple of other things you or another investor Ivanhoe Farming Company. Or you could get a small business loan for all your equipment, software, and other stuff and worry about paying monthly payments as business comes in.

In the first example, you have 0 debt. Not just 0 debt owed this year, but 0 debt, and are therefore not leveraged at all. If the company does well, it'll do much better for the investors because you've invested less money into the company to start with. The debt ratio simply takes the total assets less the total equity basically, the total debtand divides it by the total assets.

The Times Interest Earned ratio compares the amount of interest that is owed every year to the amount of money earned before interest and tax. By seeing how much earnings are going back to the company and how much are going to the creditors, you can get a pretty good idea of how leveraged the company is. Turnover ratios calculate the approximate "utilization" of assets. They give you a look into how well the company is managing things like its inventory levels, the accounts receivable on its books, and the like.

There are three Analysiss commonly used turnover ratios. They're all really the same calculation but for different items on the balance sheet. By dividing the "cost of goods sold" line item by the Co,pany line item, you get what's known as an inventory multiple.

This means that, every year, you "turn over" your inventory 10 times. Inventory turnover is key in high-tech industries, where inventory becomes obsolete very quickly. It also gives a bit of an indication as to the competency of management: If they're making too much or too little stuff, they're probably not running their company properly.

In the case of Alta Genetics, their product is not Analusis as high-tech and probably has a long shelf life, so their inventory turnover of days isn't quite as high as it appears. Receivables turnover does the exact same thing as inventory turnover but looks at the Accounts Receivable line item. Remember, this line item indicates the amount of money your Cmopany owe you for stuff they've bought but not paid for yet.

By dividing sales by accounts receivable, you get a multiple just like the one in inventory turnover. By dividing the number of days in the year by this number, you get an idea of how long your Urban Tribe Company receivable lasts. This means that the average customer only pays you back Although receivables turnover, like all of these ratios, is highly dependent on the industry Company Ratio Analysis Report are in a good ratio for the biotech industry may be an awful ratio for General Motors, and vice versayou can still get an idea of what's going on in the company by using it.

It gives you an idea of how reliable your customers are with payments and how good the management team is--if they're forgetting to get paid by their clients "letting receivables slide"they're not doing a good job. The average age of accounts receivable at Alta Genetics is just over 90 days.

Although this seems high at first glance, it may not be that high for the Rqtio they're in and would have to be compared to other companies in this specific field. Payables turnover is a measure of how long the company is waiting before Repoet off the people that it owes, so it's the complete opposite of receivables turnover.

Calculated the same way, it gives the average length of time before the company is paying its bills. If this is too short, the company may be missing a really good opportunity for financing because postponement of paying for stuff you buy is, in effect, financing--just ask any student. If it's too long, it's usually a sign of trouble.

You don't want to make your suppliers mad: If they cut off the supply, you can't make any money. In the case of Alta Genetics, it's impossible to determine the age of their payables due to the amalgamation of payables and "accrued liabilities" as one line on their balance sheet. If the number given on this line were just accounts payable, the average time before a bill is paid would be over 6 months! Profitability ratios ask one easy question: Is the company making money?

There are all sorts of different ratios to look at this. Analysiss calculate profit margin by dividing net income the bottom line--after all expenses, etc. Profit margin is useful for measuring a whole variety of things.

Profit margin is also a useful tool when a firm is growing rapidly. As your sales go up, what happens to your expenses? If your profit margin is shrinking as you're growing, you may be becoming less efficient. Alta Genetics, like many biotech start-ups, is unfortunately currently suffering from a negative profit margin. Thus the company is at least moving in the right direction.

Return on Assets ROA gives an idea of how much money you're making, given the size of the company. The easiest way of figuring this out is by dividing net income by the total assets of the company. If your Return on Assets Company Ratio Analysis Report less than the interest rate, you'd be better off selling all your stuff and Repott the cash in the bank, unless you felt it was going to improve significantly, soon. Because Alta Genetics posted a loss last year, the return on assets is also going to be negative.

However, this is normal with a small biotech firm: People are willing to accept a negative ROA in the first few years, in exchange for a high upside potential in the years to come. Return on Equity gives an idea of how much the firm is making per dollar invested in it by shareholders. The easiest way of calculating it is by Gene Morris Company net Company Ratio Analysis Report by total equity.

If shareholders can make a higher return on equity elsewhere, you may be in trouble: They may decide that some other company is a better investment for them Compxny pull out their funds.

However, the investors are likely in it for the long haul, hoping that when the company starts making money, it'll make lots. This week, I've tried to give you a fairly simplistic look at some of the basic tools analysts use when evaluating an Annual Report.

If the series has interested you, and you want to go further in the analysis, I suggest getting an introductory text on Corporate Finance. So stay tuned! By Anurag Srivastava Jan. By Karin Bodewits Feb. By Alaina G. Levine Jan. All rights Reserved. Ratio Analysis One Reportt the easiest ways of analyzing an annual report is through the use of mathematical ratios. Liquidity Liquidity ratios are used to determine the company's ability to pay its bills from day to day.

Leverage Leverage is a term used to describe the company's current ability to pay its long-term debt. Turnover Ratios Turnover ratios calculate the approximate "utilization" of assets. Inventory Turnover By dividing the "cost of goods sold" line item by the inventory line item, you get Compan known as an inventory multiple. Receivables Turnover Receivables Anzlysis does the exact same thing as inventory turnover but looks at the Accounts Receivable line item.

Payables Turnover Payables turnover is a measure of how long the company is waiting before paying off the people that it owes, so it's the complete opposite of receivables Reliance General Insurance Company. Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios ask one easy question: Is the company making money?

Return on Equity Return on Equity gives an idea of how much the firm is making per dollar invested in it by Modena Company. Summary This week, I've tried to give you a fairly simplistic look at some of the basic tools analysts use when evaluating an Annual Report. Follow Science Careers.

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