Donruss Playoff L. The company markets a number of different series each year under the Donruss, Playoff, Leaf, and Score brands, primarily distributing them in the United States through card collectors' hobby shops and mass-marketers like Toys "R" Us. Donruss Playoff's ownership is controlled Neptune Music Company Ann Blake, who co-founded Score in the s. Donruss Playoff traces its roots towhen Donald and Russell Weiner became owners of the Thomas Weiner Company of Memphis, Tennessee, which manufactured hard candy, suckers, and a brand of gum called Super Bubble.

They renamed the firm Donruss, using a combination of their first names, and continued to produce a variety of candy and gum products. In the early s, the company began to issue sets of trading cards, one of the first of which was "Idiot Cards" fromwhich featured cartoons and jokes aimed at the elementary and middle-school market.

There were 66 different cards, and since each pack contained a random assortment, children would have to buy a number of packages or trade duplicates with their friends to form a complete set. By the middle of the decade, Donruss had begun licensing entertainment properties for new series of cards.

Some of the first such sets were based on the hit television shows The Donruss Company Family and Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea. In the latter half of the decade other series based on television's The Monkees and The Flying Nun were issued as well. InDonruss made the national news when a lawsuit over its payment of corporate taxes reached the U. Supreme Court. Although a U. Circuit Court found in the company's favor, the high court ruled unanimously that Donruss would have to pay the tax, effectively voiding the purpose test for all corporations.

That same year, the Weiners sold the firm to food giant General Mills, under whose ownership operations continued much as they had before, with the company manufacturing a range of candy and bubble gum products and issuing sets of trading cards. In the s, these continued to be based on pop-culture phenomena such as the film Saturday Night Fever, television's Bionic Woman, and rock and rollers Elvis Presley and Kiss.

Ina lawsuit was filed by Topps rival Fleer to try to break the lock on baseball, and five years later a Federal judge ruled that Topps Donruss Company illegally obtained exclusive rights to use the players' images. Fleer and Donruss immediately worked out agreements with Major League Baseball to issue their own sets of cards, and Donruss's first series hit stores in time for the season.

In August of that year, the judge's ruling was overturned by an appellate court, but Fleer's lawyers discovered a loophole in the Topps contract which allowed cards to be sold if they were not packaged with gum or candy, or if they were sold in combination with some other item. Donruss quickly removed gum and added three pieces of a Babe Ruth puzzle to its 30 cent, card packs, while Fleer enclosed team logo stickers.

Rather than over-saturating the market for baseball cards, the new competition proved a stimulant. Total sales grew from an estimated million cards a year in the late s to one billion by the mids as each of the three firms strove to make their card sets distinctive. For its part, Donruss included a card "Diamond Kings" subset, which featured paintings of one player from each team by noted sports artist Dick Perez, and other cards that depicted non-player subjects like the San Diego Padres mascot "The Chicken," which thousands of Kingstree Auction Company mailed to the company to have autographed.

Donruss's initial success with baseball cards was soon followed by problems with distribution and overproduction, however, and in late General Mills sold the firm to conglomerate Huhtamaki Oy of Finland. Huhtamaki had also recently bought Leaf Confectionery, Inc. Huhtamaki, which had been founded inowned a number of different firms Quaker Chemical Company Inc included makers of beverages, canned and frozen foods, pharmaceuticals, and industrial products.

The Leaf association proved a boon to the firm, as it provided access to that company's well-established distribution network. InDonruss began making special cards for Canada, and in it introduced a new card set called "The Rookies. Topps remained the leader, producing approximately half of the total, with Donruss selling about a quarter and Fleer a shade less. By this time, the concept of baseball cards as collectibles Missouri Star Quilt Company Catalog even investments was gaining wider acceptance, and specialty shops were John Brownlee Fast Company to spring up around the country to serve customers who now included many adults along with the industry's core audience of teen and pre-teen boys.

Prices for the card packs were on the rise, now standing at 45 cents. Score boosted the cards' quality a notch by using better paper, action photographs, and improved writing on the backs, while Upper Deck went even further, issuing a card set that featured holograms to discourage counterfeiting and opaque foil packaging instead of the traditional waxed paper.

Its cards cost 89 cents for 15 and were also sold in complete sets through dealers. In the summer ofDonruss took a page from Upper Deck's book and introduced a new, higher-quality card series on top of its standard set.

They would be issued in two batches, one in July and the other in September, so the company could add late player trades and other changes to the second set. Donruss' sister company, Leaf, had itself issued baseball cards in the late s, and the use of the brand name represented a return to that legacy.

InTopps and Fleer introduced their own deluxe card sets, and, following Upper Deck's lead, all card makers began inserting limited-edition bonus cards into random packs. Other firms included cards autographed by legends like Mickey Mantle and Nolan Ryan, while Donruss inserted several new limited-edition cards, as well as 5, signed by Cubs All-Star Ryne Sandberg.

The year also saw the launch of the Donruss Learning Series, a program for elementary and middle school children that used baseball cards to help teach history, geography, and math with workbooks and a set of 55 cards designed specifically for the program. The companies' focus on limited edition inserts was not greeted enthusiastically in all quarters, however, and Donruss was criticized for including four random "preview cards" of forthcoming Leaf series, such as the stylish black-and-white Studio line, only in full sets of its standard cards, which necessitated the purchase of a complete set to obtain a handful of rare cards.

The company would ultimately add two separate sets of Leaf previews in different batches of the full sets. In the summer ofDonruss began expanding its Memphis plant fromsquare feet to nearlyIt would continue to make trading cards and bubble gum at the facility, where employment grew from to At the same time, their quality was upgraded, and they were packed in foil, while certain limited-edition and autographed cards would be included at random.

One subset would be the popular Diamond Kings cards, which would henceforth be produced only in limited quantities. The year also saw the firm create card series for use as giveaways by McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and Cracker Jack, Kenco Engineering Company introduce a new, cheaper line of cards called "Triple Play.

A study by Salomon Brothers of market share for card makers at this time highlighted the dramatic changes that had occurred since the s. First place was now held by newcomer Upper Deck with 24 percent, followed by Topps with 22, Fleer with 20, Score with ten, Donruss with eight, and the remainder of the pie divided up by smaller companies like SkyBox and Classic. The company also introduced the Leaf Limited line, which featured cards that utilized both holograms and metal Donruss Company.

Inspired by the previous year's Topp's Finest series, Leaf Limited would be restricted to 5, cases. The year proved disastrous for many sports card manufacturers. A major baseball strike forced cancellation of the latter half of the season and soured many on the game, while a lockout of National Hockey League players threw that sport into disarray for a time as well.

Simultaneously, the proliferation of card makers and their increasing emphasis on limited-edition series, along with a sizable drop in the resale value of recent cards, was causing large numbers of collectors to rethink their devotion to the hobby. Further aggravating factors included the actions of the players' associations, which signed deals with unlimited numbers of companies for high licensing fees that drove up card prices, and the chicanery of certain unscrupulous dealers, who found ways to remove valuable insert cards before packs were put out for public sale or even stooped to counterfeiting desirable Oman Aluminium Rolling Company. The company took several measures to regroup under new head John Williams, who had previously run Huhtamaki's Polarcup packaging unit.

InL1b To H1b Same Company firm, which had recently become known as Donruss Trading Cards, Inc. It was soon marketing a set of nearly Ace Ventura cards, based on the hit Jim Carrey movies. The company's sales slump was dragging down Huhtamaki's profits, however, and in May of the Finnish company sold Donruss's baseball and hockey card lines to Pinnacle Brands, Inc. Playing Card Co. Coming in the aftermath of Fleer's merger with smaller rival SkyBox International, the Donruss sale reduced the number of major card companies to four.

It had started in as Optigraphics, which made special "moving-image" cards, and became Score when it Zmc Nutritional Products Company the baseball card market in Its founders and owners, Ann Blake and John Flavin, had divorced inwith Flavin continuing at Score and Blake leaving to found a company called Cardz Distribution.

After Score became Pinnacle, Flavin sold his own stake in the firm. Under the aegis of Pinnacle, Donruss continued to release various lines of baseball and hockey cards, including such items as Leaf insert cards printed on actual pieces of metal and others printed on leather and wood.

Such strategies did not succeed in reversing the company's fortunes, however, and in July of Pinnacle Brands, Inc. A year later, the Donruss, Score, Donruss Company Leaf brands, excluding their baseball and hockey licenses, were acquired by Playoff Corp. Playoff, which was owned by Ann Blake, had grown out of her Cardz operation and now produced several lines of high-end football cards.

In the months following the sale, new series of Leaf, Score, and Donruss Elite cards were issued, and in the firm added a new 36,square-foot distribution facility and launched a line of cards based on the Japanese animated television series Dragonball Z. In earlythe company became known as Donruss Playoff L. The firm would make sets for the two "lost" years of and as well.

During the year, Donruss Playoff also moved its headquarters from Grand Prairie to Arlington, Texas, where it planned to eventually open a visitors center and memorabilia museum. Other new card series contained insert cards that held pieces of bats and uniforms used in Re Sweeney Lumber Company games by current and past players, a practice copied from Upper Deck.

Another of Donruss's insert sets, inspired by one from Topps, turned to the designs of the earliest baseball cards, using ornate gold borders and canvas-like paper. The year also saw the firm produce entertainment cards for programs such as Buffy, The Vampire Slayer through its new Score Entertainment division and introduce the first U. It would randomly insert 2, cards bearing pieces of the shirt into packs over the next several years.

The company responded to critics of the jersey's shredding by stating that it gave average fans a chance to own a piece of history and brought out the legendary Yankee's year old daughter to give the cutting her stamp of approval.

Also inDonruss created a first-ever set of cards for players of the year old Arena Football League, which would be sold at games and via the teams' Web sites.

The following year, the company launched a baseball card insert series called Fans of the Game, E Verify Company Identification Number depicted baseball-loving performers like Regis Philbin, Charlie Sheen, Joe Mantegna, and Sopranos star James Gandolfini.

With a half-century of history behind it, Donruss Playoff L. The firm had been chastened by the card market shakeout of the s and was now focusing on high quality or limited production items which offered such bonus features as player autographs and slices of game-worn uniforms and equipment.

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Panini America - The Cardboard Connection

The combined company was known as Donruss Playoff, though hobbyists commonly continued to refer to it simply as Donruss. In 2005, Major League Baseball declined to renew Donruss Playoff's license, leaving it primarily in the business of football cards (though it continued to dabble in some other sports without full licenses).…

Leaf International - Wikipedia

Leaf International BV was a confectionery company founded in the 1940s. Leaf had sales of approximately €527m (2010) and 2,400 employees. It had 11 factories in seven countries. Leaf was owned by CVC Capital Partners, Nordic Capital, and management. Bengt Baron was the CEO of Leaf.. After several mergers and acquisitions Leaf merged with the Swedish confectionery company Cloetta, …Fate: Merged into Cloetta…

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Donruss Company . Docket no. 17 . Decided by Warren Court . Lower court United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit . Citation 393 US 297 (1969) Argued. Oct 22 - 23, 1968. Decided. Jan 13, 1969. Sort: by seniority; by ideology << decision 1 of 1 >> 6–3 decision for United States…

Donruss -

Beginnings. Donruss-Playoff traces its roots to 1954, when Donald and Russell Weiner became owners of the Thomas Weiner Company of Memphis, Tennessee, which manufactured hard candy, suckers, and a brand of gum called Super Bubble.…