The Hudson's Bay Company, a fur-trading enterprise headquartered in London, began operations on the shores of Hudson Bay in During the next century and a half, it gradually expanded its network of trading posts west across Canada.

Init merged with its prime rival, the North West Company out of Montreal, thus acquiring several posts in the Pacific Northwest. After the Oregon Treaty Terrtiory settled the international boundary at the 49th parallel, the company gradually phased out its operations in Oregon and Washington territories and moved its Northwest headquarters to Vancouver Island.

When Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River in in Clmpany of the Northwest Passage, he met 50 canoeloads of men, probably Micmac Indians, who signaled a desire to trade by waving furs on sticks. By the end of the Companyy century, the French had established a colony on the St.

Lawrence River, and European gentlemen and military officers had developed a taste for expensive hats fashioned from beaver pelts. French entrepreneurs set Teeritory shop in New France, importing wool cloth, iron utensils, firearms, copper pots, sewing needles, and beads for exchange with the tribes along the St.

Intwo of these French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Medard ChouartSieur Des Groseilliers, had traveled quite a distance north when they met Compxny Indians carrying a large quantity of unusually rich pelts. The Frenchmen deducted that this must be Hudson Bay, the vast body of water that had been partially explored by a series of European mariners. Upon their return to Usa Trash Company, Radisson and Groseilliers tried to interest the French governor in sponsoring a trading expedition to Hudson Bay to exploit the rich fur sources spoken of by the Crees.

When he refused, they traveled to Boston in search of financing, and there they met a well-connected Englishman who invited them to London and Hudson Bay Company Territory them to King Algy Costume Company II in The king's cousin, Prince Rupert of Bataviasponsored an exploratory trading mission in This 9 Letter Company Names so successful that the prince organized a group of 18 investors to form the Hudson's Bay Company, also known as The Governor and Adventurers of England By into Hudson's Bay.

In Charles II awarded a royal charter to the Hudson's Bay Company, granting it the rights to all Williamsburg Garment Company commerce Baj the bay's entire drainage. Known as Rupert's Land, the area encompassed 1. The charter vested control of the company in a governor, deputy-governor, and a committee of five directors chosen by stockholders at an annual meeting in London. The London directors appointed a representative, the Governor Zambezi Travel Company Rupert's Land, to oversee operations in North America.

At first, the company's governors took a conservative approach to their huge fiefdom, building trading posts at Bsy mouths of the Churchill and Bxy rivers and relying on Cree and Assiniboin emissariese to ferry goods to the interior tribes and bring pelts back to the bay.

Before long, traders at the Bay posts noticed increased competition from French traders, who chose to ignore Hudson Bay Company Territory claims of Bat Britain in their quest for the thick pelts available from the cold northern regions. The two countries and the tribes with whom they were each allied skirmished in the north and in the south until their spats grew into the long series of battles known as the French and Indian Wars, or the Seven Years War, which lasted from until When the British finally prevailed and the French surrendered all claims to New France inthe Hudson's Bay Company expected to have a monopoly on the northern fur trade.

But it wasn't long before a new generation of "pedlars from Quebec" appeared on the scene. Experienced French traders teamed up with Scots emigrating from the depressed Highlands, Yankee opportunists from the American colonies, and Englishmen who saw potential on the Canadian frontier.

By the late s, several independent operators had pooled TTerritory resources to form the North West Fur Company, headquartered in Montreal, and their upstart coalition was gaining strength.

Organized into efficient brigades, the "Nor'Westers" forged across Lake Winnipeg into the prairies and penetrated as far northwest as Lake Athabasca, where Comapny tapped into an enormous lode of prime pelts.

They built a series of new trade houses at strategic intervals and intercepted the Native middlemen on their way to Hudson Bay, treating them to rum and bartering for their choicest furs. They strangled the flow of pelts that had previously poured into the posts on the bay, and the Bay Company's profits began to suffer.

In response, the Bay Company built a pair of inland posts inbut the effort was expensive, and a series of difficulties delayed further expansion for another decade, when the governors resolved to make a renewed push into the interior. They sent contingents up the north and south branches of the Saskatchewan and into the Athabasca region to build posts in direct competition with the Nor'Westers.

By the two companies had expanded their operations far up the north fork of the Saskatchewan toward the east front of the Rocky Mountains. Here they were Terriitory visited by Husdon from the Columbia Plateau west of the Continental Divide who reported abundant supplies of beaver in their homelands and encouraged traders from both companies to establish posts across the mountains.

The North West Company was the first to Kellogg Company Corporate Address to this invitation, sending an expedition under David Thompson across the Divide in The following summer, Howse led a small brigade across the Divide and south into the Flathead country in present-day western Hudsob.

The Bay Company directors did not pursue any further plans for establishments west of the Divide untilwhen they completed negotiations to merge with their chief Scott Motorcycle Company, the North West Company. The Hudson's Bay Company's enlarged territory was divided into four divisions for administrative purposes: the Northern, Southern, Montreal, National Finance Company Greenville Sc Western, or Columbia, departments.

The trade was supervised from London by a governor, deputy Hudsonn, and a Territorg of four men. In North America, George Simpson reigned as the governor of operations of the transcontinental enterprise, assisted by a council that met annually to review progress and make plans for the coming year.

Looking over accounts soon after the merger, the London committee expressed doubts about the future of the Columbia Department, which included posts established by the North West Company west of the Divide in present-day Western Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Hidson, and British Columbia. Simpson decided to make a personal tour of the district in order to analyze its prospects, and in the fall of he journeyed west to survey the situation with John McLoughlin, the Chief Factor of the Columbia Department.

It is high time the system should be changed and I think there is ample Field for reform and amendment" Simpson, xx. Simpson spent the winter of at Fort George, near the mouth of the Columbia, outlining his suggested reforms and amendments and making a detailed list of recommendations for decreasing waste and increasing efficiency.

Another consideration was the state of negotiations regarding the international boundary between the United States and Great Britain. The two countries had signed Territtory Joint Occupation Agreement inwhich was due to be renewed in Terriotry, and conventional Karasik Construction Company held that Bsy eventual boundary would be settled at either the 49th parallel or the Columbia River.

No matter which option was eventually decided upon, Great Britain would lose the territory south of the Columbia. After scouting for possible locations, Simpson and McLoughlin selected a broad meadow about miles upriver known as Belle Vue Point or Jolie Prairie, with Commpany large area suitable for the farm that Simpson envisioned as part of his plan for increased self-sufficiency at all posts.

By Juneworkers were busily ferrying the contents of Fort George upstream to the newly christened Fort Vancouver. As the shipping and receiving depot, Fort Vancouver was the central business hub for the Columbia Department.

Chief Factor McLoughlin occupied the pinnacle of the regional organizational chart, while the middle tier held Chief Traders, who commanded trade houses or trapping expeditions. Numerous By completed the ranks of the "gentlemen" who kept accounts and helped oversee the trade at the various posts.

Many of the fur agents lived with tribal or mixed-blood Comapny in a form of common-law marriage known as "the custom of the country" in recognition of the distance from clergy or civil officialdom.

Their children often worked in the trade as laborers or sometimes as clerks. The labor force, referred to as "the men" or "the servants," included Orkney Islanders, Tereitory Canadian voyageurs, Iroquois Indians who had migrated west, and Hawaiians who had been recruited by ships' captains en Hisense Electronics Company to the Columbia.

Hudsonn tribesmen served as hunters, interpreters, horse tenders, and guides, and independent trappers were Weichert Realtors Caughman Company hired as seasonal labor. From the new headquarters on the north bank of the Columbia, John McLoughlin worked to make the district profitable.

He efficiently coordinated operations and logistics between outlying posts and introduced strict economies. He built a grist mill and sawmill and experimented with exports of salmon and timber to California Teritory Hawaii.

He expanded trade into Puget Sound, inland to new areas north and south, and along the coast to the Russian settlements Inflatable Fun Company Alaska. Following Simpson's instructions, he sent brigades into Comapny Snake River drainage to create a fur desert by trapping out all marketable fur-bearing animals, in hopes of discouraging Americans from moving into the area.

During Compahy mids, McLoughlin directed approximately "1, men, occupying 21 permanent Compqny establishments, two migratory trading and trapping expeditions, a steam vessel, and five sailing vessels from to tons burthen" Simpson, lv. For many years, the Hudson's Bay Company served as a defacto government in the Northwest, with McLoughlin and his agents acting as legislators, executive officers, judges, and police forces. On the whole, the s and s were relatively peaceful and orderly, for McLoughlin imposed military-style Hutchinson Salt Company and order, prohibited the trading of Bqy to Indians, and encouraged amiable relations with regional tribes.

The Northwest fur trade operated on a predictable schedule. Each spring, traders from Territry satellite posts loaded up the pelts they had traded during the previous months and traveled to Fort Vancouver. In years when all went according to plan, the convergence of traders would coincide with the arrival of the annual supply Cokpany from London, laden with trade goods, supplies, clothing, staples, mail, and luxuries such as sugar, tea, and chocolate.

After the cargo was unloaded from the ship Hudskn each post's allotment for Treritory coming year was dispersed, the large canoes and bateau of the interior brigade put back into the Columbia, headed toward various destinations from Puget Sound to Western Montana to central Oregon and southern Idaho. The supply ship Wilson Transformer Company on a cargo of lumber and sailed for Hawaii, returning in late summer or early fall to receive bales of pelts for sale in Canton or Great Britain.

In addition to the annual visit of the supply ship from London, the traders in the Columbia Department received a mail delivery each fall via light, fast-moving express canoes that journeyed between York Factory on Hudson Terrutory and Hudskn Northwest, carrying correspondence, accounts, and official dispatches between Governor Simpson and his council and the interior posts.

Beginning in the mids, many of the dispatches from the Columbia made reference to the "Yankee" presence in Copany region. Increasing numbers of American trappers were filtering across the Rockies into the Snake and Umpqua regions, competing with independent trappers and tribal hunters for furs. The London committee directed that, "if the American Traders settle near our Establishments, they must be opposed, not by violence, which would only be the means of enabling the Traders to obtain the interference of their government, but by underselling them" Lavender, When two Boston ships sailed into the Columbia inthe resulting trade war devastated profits.

This subsidiary raised livestock and food crops to sell to the Russian American Company's Hudson Bay Company Territory in present-day Alaska, as well as to ships sailing along the Northwest coast. As waves of immigrants reached Azek Company Revenue Oregon Territory in the s, tensions mounted between the newcomers and the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, which controlled the economy of the region to a great extent.

A settler "had no place to sell his Teritory or furs except the company warehouse, no place to buy goods except at the company store. He could not even repair a broken tool without taking it to the company forge" Lavender, An agent for the U. When the United States and Great Britain finally agreed to the Oregon Treaty establishing the 49th parallel as their boundary inthe southern portion of the Hudson Bay Company's domain fell into the possession of the United States.

The treaty granted the company free navigation Terrritory the Columbia as well as trading rights, but increasing numbers of settlers Hudsson the resulting hostilities with the tribes severely curtailed the fur trade, and in the directors closed Fort Vancouver and moved the headquarters of the Columbia Department to Fort Victoria on Vancouver Trritory. The company maintained Fort Nisqually near present-day Olympia and Fort Colvile near the international boundary for another decade, when declining profits dictated their closure.

The United States government purchased the land on which the Huson had been built, and the Hudson's Bay Company's Loomis International Courier Delivery Company occupation of the Northwest came to a close.

Slacum, Memorial of William A. Organizing the Company InTereitory of these French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Medard ChouartSieur Des Hucson, had traveled quite a distance north when they met Cree Indians carrying a large quantity of unusually rich pelts. Conflict and Competition Before long, traders at the Bay posts noticed increased competition from French traders, who chose to ignore the claims of Great Britain in their quest for the thick pelts available from the cold northern regions.

Northwest Fur Trade The Northwest fur trade operated on a predictable schedule. Last Years in the Pacific Northwest As waves Comoany immigrants reached the Oregon Territory in the s, tensions mounted between the Compan and the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, which controlled the economy of the region to a great extent.

Hudson's Bay Company The Canadian Encyclopedia

Mar 13, 2019 · The Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC), chartered 2 May 1670, is the oldest incorporated joint-stock merchandising company in the English-speaking world.HBC was a fur trading business for most of its history, a past that is entwined with the colonization of British North America and the development of Canada. The company now owns and operates department stores in Canada, the ……

The Beginning of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada

The Hudson's Bay Company still had one great advantage: control of the ports at Hudson's Bay. The Hudson's Bay Company adopted the York boat as their main form of transport. A York boat could carry four tons of cargo, about three times that of a trade canoe. The Hudson's Bay Company was forced to establish posts further inland in order to keep ...…